What led to the break-up of Pakistan?
R E F E R E N C E S
1. The search for political stability by M. H. Askari, Dawn Aug. 14, 1993
4. What led to the break-up? by Dr. Aftab Ahmed - Dawn 17-4-1992
5. During the time when delicate negotiations were going on between the center and East Bengal, the new Chief Minister, Fazlul Haq, created a stir by challenging the very logic that created the state of Pakistan. He said that with the help of the people of India he hoped "to remove the artificial barriers that had been created between the two Bengals" because the Bengalis were "bound by a common language and heritage and they have had age-long traditions." In another interview he asserted, "Independence will be the first thing to be taken up by my ministry," at negotiations between center and East Bengal. The prime minister, Mohammad Ali Bogra, when dismissing Fazlul Haq as chief minister and placing East Bengal under central control, called the chief minister as "self-confessed traitor." Khalid B. Sayeed, Politics in Pakistan, P-41
6. Dr. Aftab Ahmed, What led to the break-up, Dawn 17.4.92
9. In memoriam: Dhaka 1971-1991 by Brig. A. R. Siddique (retd) - Dawn 16.12.1991
10. Hasan Zaheer, Separation of East Pakistan, the rise and realization of Bengali Muslim nationalism, published by Oxford University Press, Karachi, 1994.
11. Askari, op. cit.,
12. Reports of the Advisory Penals for the Fourth Five year Plan 1970-75, Vol. 1, Islamabad, July 1970, pp-27-28
13. Sayeed op. cit., p-66
14. The Pakistan army was almost entirely recruited from four districts of northern Punjab (Rawalpindi, Campbellpur, Jhelum and Gujrat) and two districts of the Frontier Province (Peshawar and Kohat). Sixty per cent of the army were Punjabi and 35 per cent were Pakhtuns. Generals, admirals or air marshals occupying positions such as the presidency, the deputy commander-in-chief of the army, chief of the general staff, the commanders-in-chief of the navy and air force, the director of inter-services intelligence, the military governor of a province and the command of certain divisions constituted the military elite. Sayeed, op. cit., p-71
15. Meanings of the disaster by Eqbal Ahmad - Dawn 17.4.1994
16. Muhammad Munir (Retired Chief Justice of Pakistan), From Jinnah to Zia, p-92,93,
17. Under Art. 20 (2) of the LFO the constitution to be made by the National Assembly had to preserve "Islamic ideology which is the basis for the creation of Pakistan." The provisions relating to the name of the State, the Head of State, enabling Muslims to order their lives in accordance with the teachings of Islam as set out in the Holy Quran and Sunnah, directive principles so as to promote Islamic way of life and observe Islamic moral standards, to provide facilities for the teaching of Holy Quran, enjoining that no law repugnant to Holy Quran and Sunnah could be made, were the same as in the 1956 constitution or the amended 1962 constitution.
18. G. W. Choudhury, Pakistan: Transition from Military to Civilian Rule, p-9
19. J. Raston, 'Who won in India?', The New York Times, December 4, 1971 cited by GW Choudhury, op. cit., p-10
20. Askari, op. cit.